Arabic Grammar – Ishtighāl

Rules

1. When naṣb is given preponderance : this has three different situations, (i) the pre-occupied verb is a ṭalab e.g. Zaydan iḍribhu

(ii) the noun is preceded by a particle which usually enters upon verbs e.g. أبشر منا واحدا نتبعه

(iii) the noun is accompanied by a connector preceded by a verbal sentence that is not built upon subject (format)

والأنعام خلقها….

2. When raf’ is given preponderance due to subjectivity like Zaydan ḍarabtuhu.

3. When naṣb is a must : the noun is preceded by that which seeks a verb, for e.g. إن زيدا رأيته فأكرمه

4. When raf’ is a must : the noun is preceded by something which usually preceds nominal sentences like إذا الفجائية for e.g.
خرجت فإذا زيد يضربه عمرو

5. When both naṣb and raf’ are equal in preponderance : the noun is accompanied by a connector preceded by a verbal sentence that is built upon subjectivity e.g. زيد قام وعمرا أكرمته

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