Arabic Grammar – Ishtighāl

Rules

1. When naṣb is given preponderance : this has three different situations, (i) the pre-occupied verb is a ṭalab e.g. Zaydan iḍribhu

(ii) the noun is preceded by a particle which usually enters upon verbs e.g. أبشر منا واحدا نتبعه

(iii) the noun is accompanied by a connector preceded by a verbal sentence that is not built upon subject (format)

والأنعام خلقها….

2. When raf’ is given preponderance due to subjectivity like Zaydan ḍarabtuhu.

3. When naṣb is a must : the noun is preceded by that which seeks a verb, for e.g. إن زيدا رأيته فأكرمه

4. When raf’ is a must : the noun is preceded by something which usually preceds nominal sentences like إذا الفجائية for e.g.
خرجت فإذا زيد يضربه عمرو

5. When both naṣb and raf’ are equal in preponderance : the noun is accompanied by a connector preceded by a verbal sentence that is built upon subjectivity e.g. زيد قام وعمرا أكرمته

Kaedah Taṣḥīḥ Ḥadīth Sebahagian Ulama Tasawwuf – Bahagian 1 (Asal-usulnya)

Isu taṣḥīḥ ḥadīth melalui kasyaf ahli Tasawwuf

Al-Ḥāfiẓ Al-Syaikh Aḥmad ibn al-Syaikh Muhammad ibn Al-Siddīq Al-Ghumārī dalam kitabnya Al-Mughīr menukilkan satu riwayat, Nabi s.a.w. berkata, “Jika kamu mendengar hadith yang diriwayatkan atas namaku, yang mana hati-hati kamu mengenali ianya (daripadaku) serta bulu-bulu romamu sera kulit-kulitmu menjadi tenang, dan kamu melihatnya dekat (ke hatimu) maka aku lebih utama dari kamu kepadanya (yakni ia adalah hadithku)…” diriwayat oleh Aḥmad daripada ḥadīth Abi Ḥumaid dan Abī Usaid. [16058, Musnad Makkiyīn]

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَامِرٍ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ بِلَالٍ، عَنْ رَبِيعَةَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ بْنِ سَعِيدِ بْنِ سُوَيْدٍ، عَنْ أَبِي حُمَيْدٍ، وأَبِي أُسَيْدٍ ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: ” إِذَا سَمِعْتُمُ الْحَدِيثَ عَنِّي تَعْرِفُهُ قُلُوبُكُمْ، وَتَلِينُ لَهُ أَشْعَارُكُمْ، وَأَبْشَارُكُمْ، وَتَرَوْنَ أَنَّهُ مِنْكُمْ قَرِيبٌ، فَأَنَا أَوْلَاكُمْ بِهِ، وَإِذَا سَمِعْتُمُ الْحَدِيثَ عَنِّي تُنْكِرُهُ قُلُوبُكُمْ، وَتَنْفِرُ أَشْعَارُكُمْ، وَأَبْشَارُكُمْ، وَتَرَوْنَ أَنَّهُ مِنْكُمْ بَعِيدٌ فَأَنَا أَبْعَدُكُمْ مِنْهُ ”

Maka ini adalah satu shāhid bagi mereka pada penghukuman mereka atas kepalsuan hadith dengan mendengar semata-mata sekalipun pada zahirnya sanadnya sah, kecuali perkara ini tidak dapat diterima dan tidak ada kecuali daripada mereka yang berkecimpung dalam bidang hadith dan berkhidmat kepadanya sehinggakan dia mengecapi rasa segala lafaz Nabawi serta (segala lafaz-lafaz itu) telah bercampur dengan darah dagingnya….

(Kebolehan ini diterima) dari Muhaddith yang telah bercampur akan sunnah dengan ruhnya dengan tambahan cahaya hati dan kebersihan minda…bukan dari selainnya daripada golongan fuqaha, penceramah, dan golongan sufi….kecuali para ‘Arifin billah, ahli kasyaf yang saḥīḥ yang memiliki mata hati yang menembusi dengan cahaya Allah ta’ala bukan dari selain mereka.

Menurut Ustaz Khafidz Soroni kaedah ini asasnya telah wujud sejak zaman tabiin lagi. Antara mereka ialah al-Rabi‘ bin Khuthaim at-Thawri al-Kufi (w. 61 atau 63H), seorang tokoh tabii, wali dan ahli ibadah yang pernah dipuji oleh Ibn Mas‘ud RA katanya: “Sekiranya Rasulullah SAW melihatmu, nescaya dia akan mengasihimu”.

Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi dan lain-lain telah meriwayatkan daripada al-Rabi‘ bin Khuthaim katanya:

إن للحديث ضوءا كضوء النهار يعرف، وظلمة كظلمة الليل تنكر.

“Sesungguhnya bagi hadis itu ada cahaya seperti cahaya siang yang dapat dikenali dan ada kegelapan seperti kegelapan malam yang tidak dapat dikenali”. (al-Kifayah: 605) [intaha nukilan dari Ustaz Khafidz]

Rujukan :
– Nota Q&A Hadith Ustaz Khafidz Soroni (Telegram)
– Al-Mughir ‘ala Al-Āḥādīth Al-Mawḍū’ah fī Al-Jāmi’ Al-Saghīr, Al-Ghumari (Khatimah kitab)

Arrogance Litmus Test

Knowledge on its own without practical application will not cure the heart from arrogance completely hence here are some practical ways to get rid of arrogance by Al-Ghazālī,

1. To engage in discussion or debate with one’s peers and wait for the truth to manifest from them. If it is difficult for you to accept it, submit to it, acknowledge it and express gratitude to him and praise him for drawing attention to that truth, then this indicates that you still have the deadly trait of arrogance.

2. In a gathering of friends, give them precedence and priority, for instance, walk behind them or sit at a lower position than them. If that is too difficult, the trait of arrogance is still present. (Note: if this is easy for the ego then perhaps it may be trying to appear humble)

3. To respond to the invitation of the poor, run errands for friends and relatives. If these are too difficult, then the sickness of arrogance is to deep seated in the soul.

4. To carry his groceries and those of his family and friends from the marketplace to his residence.

5. To wear simple, old clothes usually worn at home. If it is difficult to be worn in the presence of people, then it is arrogance, if there are no one present, then it is riya’ or ostentation.

Conditions of being a Shaykh (Part 5)

2. The second condition is that he must have a’dālah (justness) and taqwā. It is fardh upon him to abstain from major sins and to not continuously commit minor ones.

Shah Abdul Aziz says:

Taqwa is a condition for the murshid because the purpose behind bayah is to purify the heart. Humans are naturally inclined to adopt the ways and habits of those with whom they spend time. In rectification of the heart words without actions will not do. Therefore, a murshid who is not characterized by good morals, the a’maal (actions) of khair (goodness) and who only talks and delivers speeches has not realized the whole purpose behind bayah.

3. The third condition is that he strives for the Akhirah and abstains from the allures of the material world. He is steadfast in practicing the muakkadah (strongly emphasized practices) and the adhkaar (means of Allah’s I remembrance) narrated in the authentic ahadith. His heart is connected with Allah I and he possesses the malika (gift) of perpetual awareness of Allah I.

4. The fourth condition is that he only orders what is permissible and prohibits what is forbidden. He is strong of opinion and not wishy-washy, trying to please everyone. He is also extremely intelligent and one who can be trusted.

5. The fifth condition is that he has stayed in the company of a kamil (complete) murshid and learned adab from him for a lengthy period of time. He gained nur of the heart and tranquility from him. The company of the auliya-allah is necessary because the Sunnah of Allah I is that one cannot acquire something unless he is in the company of those who already possess it. A person cannot gain knowledge unless he sits with the ulama, and likewise we can say the same of every skill that is learned; one cannot be a blacksmith until he learns from a blacksmith and a carpenter unless he is in the company of a carpenter.

6. It is not necessary that the shaikh is able to perform miraculous deeds or does not work (i.e., have a job). This is because miraculous acts are the result of exhaustive mujahadaat and spiritual exercises. They are not a sign of kamal (perfection) in the shaikh, and to leave one’s work or occupation is against the Shari’ah. One should not be deceived by the darwaish (dervishes) who are overwhelmed by their spiritual states and do not strive to make a living; their lifestyle cannot be taken as evidence of permissibility to withdraw from worldly life and making a living. Islam teaches us to be content with whatever we have, to be careful of how we earn our wealth, to avoid unlawful wealth, a job that earns haram, and to avoid doubtful wealth.

Shah Abdul Aziz says:

It is not necessary for a shaikh to lead a monastic life or devote himself to harsh and difficult conditions and devotions like perpetual fasting, spending the night in prayer, practicing celibacy, avoiding delectable foods, and running off into the jungle or mountains as many people of our time think is required to be a true sufi. This is because these acts fall under tashadud fil Deen (extremism in the Deen), and tashadud ala nafs (hardship on the Self) is not permissible. The Blessed Prophet r said, “Do not restrict yourself so rigidly that Allah I grabs you harshly.” He also said, “Monasticism has no place in Islam.”