Kaedah Taṣḥīḥ Ḥadīth Sebahagian Ulama Tasawwuf – Bahagian 1 (Asal-usulnya)

Isu taṣḥīḥ ḥadīth melalui kasyaf ahli Tasawwuf

Al-Ḥāfiẓ Al-Syaikh Aḥmad ibn al-Syaikh Muhammad ibn Al-Siddīq Al-Ghumārī dalam kitabnya Al-Mughīr menukilkan satu riwayat, Nabi s.a.w. berkata, “Jika kamu mendengar hadith yang diriwayatkan atas namaku, yang mana hati-hati kamu mengenali ianya (daripadaku) serta bulu-bulu romamu sera kulit-kulitmu menjadi tenang, dan kamu melihatnya dekat (ke hatimu) maka aku lebih utama dari kamu kepadanya (yakni ia adalah hadithku)…” diriwayat oleh Aḥmad daripada ḥadīth Abi Ḥumaid dan Abī Usaid. [16058, Musnad Makkiyīn]

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَامِرٍ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ بِلَالٍ، عَنْ رَبِيعَةَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ بْنِ سَعِيدِ بْنِ سُوَيْدٍ، عَنْ أَبِي حُمَيْدٍ، وأَبِي أُسَيْدٍ ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: ” إِذَا سَمِعْتُمُ الْحَدِيثَ عَنِّي تَعْرِفُهُ قُلُوبُكُمْ، وَتَلِينُ لَهُ أَشْعَارُكُمْ، وَأَبْشَارُكُمْ، وَتَرَوْنَ أَنَّهُ مِنْكُمْ قَرِيبٌ، فَأَنَا أَوْلَاكُمْ بِهِ، وَإِذَا سَمِعْتُمُ الْحَدِيثَ عَنِّي تُنْكِرُهُ قُلُوبُكُمْ، وَتَنْفِرُ أَشْعَارُكُمْ، وَأَبْشَارُكُمْ، وَتَرَوْنَ أَنَّهُ مِنْكُمْ بَعِيدٌ فَأَنَا أَبْعَدُكُمْ مِنْهُ ”

Maka ini adalah satu shāhid bagi mereka pada penghukuman mereka atas kepalsuan hadith dengan mendengar semata-mata sekalipun pada zahirnya sanadnya sah, kecuali perkara ini tidak dapat diterima dan tidak ada kecuali daripada mereka yang berkecimpung dalam bidang hadith dan berkhidmat kepadanya sehinggakan dia mengecapi rasa segala lafaz Nabawi serta (segala lafaz-lafaz itu) telah bercampur dengan darah dagingnya….

(Kebolehan ini diterima) dari Muhaddith yang telah bercampur akan sunnah dengan ruhnya dengan tambahan cahaya hati dan kebersihan minda…bukan dari selainnya daripada golongan fuqaha, penceramah, dan golongan sufi….kecuali para ‘Arifin billah, ahli kasyaf yang saḥīḥ yang memiliki mata hati yang menembusi dengan cahaya Allah ta’ala bukan dari selain mereka.

Menurut Ustaz Khafidz Soroni kaedah ini asasnya telah wujud sejak zaman tabiin lagi. Antara mereka ialah al-Rabi‘ bin Khuthaim at-Thawri al-Kufi (w. 61 atau 63H), seorang tokoh tabii, wali dan ahli ibadah yang pernah dipuji oleh Ibn Mas‘ud RA katanya: “Sekiranya Rasulullah SAW melihatmu, nescaya dia akan mengasihimu”.

Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi dan lain-lain telah meriwayatkan daripada al-Rabi‘ bin Khuthaim katanya:

إن للحديث ضوءا كضوء النهار يعرف، وظلمة كظلمة الليل تنكر.

“Sesungguhnya bagi hadis itu ada cahaya seperti cahaya siang yang dapat dikenali dan ada kegelapan seperti kegelapan malam yang tidak dapat dikenali”. (al-Kifayah: 605) [intaha nukilan dari Ustaz Khafidz]

Rujukan :
– Nota Q&A Hadith Ustaz Khafidz Soroni (Telegram)
– Al-Mughir ‘ala Al-Āḥādīth Al-Mawḍū’ah fī Al-Jāmi’ Al-Saghīr, Al-Ghumari (Khatimah kitab)

Arrogance Litmus Test

Knowledge on its own without practical application will not cure the heart from arrogance completely hence here are some practical ways to get rid of arrogance by Al-Ghazālī,

1. To engage in discussion or debate with one’s peers and wait for the truth to manifest from them. If it is difficult for you to accept it, submit to it, acknowledge it and express gratitude to him and praise him for drawing attention to that truth, then this indicates that you still have the deadly trait of arrogance.

2. In a gathering of friends, give them precedence and priority, for instance, walk behind them or sit at a lower position than them. If that is too difficult, the trait of arrogance is still present. (Note: if this is easy for the ego then perhaps it may be trying to appear humble)

3. To respond to the invitation of the poor, run errands for friends and relatives. If these are too difficult, then the sickness of arrogance is to deep seated in the soul.

4. To carry his groceries and those of his family and friends from the marketplace to his residence.

5. To wear simple, old clothes usually worn at home. If it is difficult to be worn in the presence of people, then it is arrogance, if there are no one present, then it is riya’ or ostentation.

Conditions of being a Shaykh (Part 5)

2. The second condition is that he must have a’dālah (justness) and taqwā. It is fardh upon him to abstain from major sins and to not continuously commit minor ones.

Shah Abdul Aziz says:

Taqwa is a condition for the murshid because the purpose behind bayah is to purify the heart. Humans are naturally inclined to adopt the ways and habits of those with whom they spend time. In rectification of the heart words without actions will not do. Therefore, a murshid who is not characterized by good morals, the a’maal (actions) of khair (goodness) and who only talks and delivers speeches has not realized the whole purpose behind bayah.

3. The third condition is that he strives for the Akhirah and abstains from the allures of the material world. He is steadfast in practicing the muakkadah (strongly emphasized practices) and the adhkaar (means of Allah’s I remembrance) narrated in the authentic ahadith. His heart is connected with Allah I and he possesses the malika (gift) of perpetual awareness of Allah I.

4. The fourth condition is that he only orders what is permissible and prohibits what is forbidden. He is strong of opinion and not wishy-washy, trying to please everyone. He is also extremely intelligent and one who can be trusted.

5. The fifth condition is that he has stayed in the company of a kamil (complete) murshid and learned adab from him for a lengthy period of time. He gained nur of the heart and tranquility from him. The company of the auliya-allah is necessary because the Sunnah of Allah I is that one cannot acquire something unless he is in the company of those who already possess it. A person cannot gain knowledge unless he sits with the ulama, and likewise we can say the same of every skill that is learned; one cannot be a blacksmith until he learns from a blacksmith and a carpenter unless he is in the company of a carpenter.

6. It is not necessary that the shaikh is able to perform miraculous deeds or does not work (i.e., have a job). This is because miraculous acts are the result of exhaustive mujahadaat and spiritual exercises. They are not a sign of kamal (perfection) in the shaikh, and to leave one’s work or occupation is against the Shari’ah. One should not be deceived by the darwaish (dervishes) who are overwhelmed by their spiritual states and do not strive to make a living; their lifestyle cannot be taken as evidence of permissibility to withdraw from worldly life and making a living. Islam teaches us to be content with whatever we have, to be careful of how we earn our wealth, to avoid unlawful wealth, a job that earns haram, and to avoid doubtful wealth.

Shah Abdul Aziz says:

It is not necessary for a shaikh to lead a monastic life or devote himself to harsh and difficult conditions and devotions like perpetual fasting, spending the night in prayer, practicing celibacy, avoiding delectable foods, and running off into the jungle or mountains as many people of our time think is required to be a true sufi. This is because these acts fall under tashadud fil Deen (extremism in the Deen), and tashadud ala nafs (hardship on the Self) is not permissible. The Blessed Prophet r said, “Do not restrict yourself so rigidly that Allah I grabs you harshly.” He also said, “Monasticism has no place in Islam.”

Conditions of being a Shaykh (Part 4) : More Strict Conditions by Shah Wali Allah

In Al-Qaul Al-Jameel, Shah Waliullah Dehlavi narrated harsher conditions for being a shaikh. The summary of this is mentioned in Al-Shifaa ul-A’leel. Below is mention of some of those conditions for one who takes bayah (i.e., a murshid).

1 .Knowledge of the Quran and hadith, and this does not mean a comprehensive knowledge of the Quran, but sufficient enough that he has understood the Quran through one of the tafasir like Tafsir Madaarik or Jalalain or some other voluminous or summarized tafsir and that he has studied the said tafsir from a learned scholar. He should also be knowledgeable in the field of ahadith that he has studied Kitab Masaabih or Mashaariq and knows the opinions of the scholars on the different ahadith.

The translator (of Al-Qaul Al-Jameel) says that the condition ‘knows the opinions of the scholars’ is to know that any opinion aside from the opinions of the four Imams is a deviation and against the consensus of the Ummah. Shah Abdul Aziz says that one who is informed of the position of scholars (on issues) fulfills the condition of having sufficient knowledge of the Quran and Sunnah.

After this, Shah Waliullah Dehlvi reminds us that the condition for the murshid to be an alim is that the purpose of bayah itself is to guide the murid towards goodness and prohibit him from wrongful things, to break his bad habits and to imbue in him good ones. Then the most important is to get the murid to retain these good habits and practice them in all the different aspects mentioned above. Thus, how can a shaikh who is not an alim and does not possess the knowledge of good and bad, right and wrong, be able to guide a murid to the right path?

The translator says:

Subhanallah! Look at how the situation has changed in our times. The fuqara of today are obsessed with the notion that ilm is unnecessary in tasawwuf and, in fact, think it is a hurdle in this path. They say that Shari’ah is one thing and tariqat is another. How can they say such a thing when all one finds in the books of the past sufiah like Qut-ul-Quloob, A’waarif, Ihya-ul-Uloom, Kimiyah-il-Sa’adat, Futuh-ul-Ghaib, and Ghaniat-ul-Talebeen (by Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani), is that Shari’ah is a condition for tasawwuf and tariqat. Even ignorance cringes at such examples of grave ignorance. They don’t have any idea what is written in the books of the sufiah whose names they chant night and day, more than they recite the Quran.

Maulana Nawab Qutbuddin (the translator of Al-Qaul Al-Jameel) writes in a footnote:

It says, in the book Tariqat Muhammadi that the forefather of the family of sufiah, Shaikh Junaid Baghdadi says,

“Whoever has not memorized the Quran and written ahadith cannot be followed in tasawwuf because this path and knowledge of ours is mutually intertwined with the Quran and Sunnah.”

Another one of his sayings is, “Any tariqat which opposes the Shari’ah is kufr.”

Siri Saqti said, “Tasawwuf is the name of three qualities:

1. The nur of ma’rifat (gnosis) does not extinguish the nur of taqwa.

2. One does not speak the secrets of the bāṭin, if they violate the explicit meanings of the Quran.

3. The karamaat of a person does not transgress the mahaarim (prohibitions) of Allah

Many other sayings of the famous auliya-allah are mentioned in Jaami ul Jaami ul Tafaasir.

Shah Waliullah continues:

Then the murshid must be one who has remained in the company of the mutaqqi ulama, learned adab from them, and diligently studied halal and haram. He trembles in fear when he hears the orders and prohibitions from the Quran and Sunnah, and transforms his sayings, actions, and his whole life in accordance with the Quran and Sunnah. If a murshid is not a scholar it is expected of him to possess that much knowledge as is necessary to ensure he leads his life according to the Quran and Sunnah.

End of the 1st condition