In matters of tauhid, certainity is required in its sub-topics especially in matters related to the attributes of God Exalted is He. It is not permitted to affirm an attribute for Allah except with following the conditions :
1) it is explicitly affirmed in a Quranic verse or a definitive hadith. 2) it does not bear the possibility of figurative interpretation or ta’wil 3) if it is from a hadith, it cannot be from the modification of the narrator.
Secondly, not all forms of ta’wil in some attributes of Allah are baseless and rejected as claimed by some radical affirmers, rather, if ta’wil is close inasmuch as the term may bear that meaning and the meaning does not resist that interpretation, it is incumbent to be accepted.
Thirdly, if the word bears two possible meaning, the one that gives the meaning of deanthropomorphism of Allah is given precedence over the other which does not, this is because deanthropomorphism is a must by the consensus of the Muslims.
1. The Mustaghni (Indifferent) : the peak of perfection (ghāyatul kamāl) in zuhd (asceticism) is indifference to money whether it is present or absent. It is the state of ‘Aīsha radiyaAllāhu ‘anhā when 100 000 dirhams were presented to her and she spent the day distributing it without taking a dirham… not remembering that she could have used some to purchase a meal for breaking her fast that day until her servant-girl reminded her of it.
2. The Zāhid (Ascetic) : who is repelled by and despises money, wary of its evil and flees from it.
3. The Rāḍī (Contented) : does not so desire money that it would bring him joy were he to obtain it, or repel him to the point of distress, causing him to give it away quickly after acquiring it.
4. The Qāni’ (Satisfied) : having money is dearer to him than not having it, because he desires it. Yet, despite this desire, he does not embark in pursuit of it. Rather, when it comes his way, he takes it with delight. But if it requires effort, he will not trouble himself to acquire although he is able to do it.
5. The Ḥarīṣ (Desirous) : Either he desires money inasmuch as were he to find the means by which he can attain it – even if it strains him – he would pursue it or he is one who is busy in pursuit of it.
6. The Muḍtarr (Direly in Need) : one who needs it for his basic survival needs from food, clothes or shelter regardless his desire for it is strong or weak.
– Keypoints taken from the Iḥya’ of Al-Imām Al-Ghazālī
Bediuzzaman was considered by many to be the Mujaddid of the 20th Century as he single-handedly countered the wave of secularisation in Modern Turkey with his work Risale-i-Nur. He was imprisoned thrice, poisoned a dozen times, exiled and treated terribly by the forces of irreligion throughout his life (even when he was in his old age) but that did not hinder his resolve to save the belief of the Muslims from those who were plotting day and night to strip faith from their hearts.
He was accused of creating a new Sufi Tariqa (which was against the law at that time) but he denied that saying, “As I have written in numerous treatises, this is not the time of Sufism; it is the time to save belief. There are many who enter Paradise without belonging to a Sufi order, but none who enter it without belief. It is therefore the time to work for belief.” What he had taught to a small number of students was “not training in Sufism (tarīqah) but instruction in the direct way to reality (ḥaqīqah).”
Bediuzzaman wrote, “Muhammad (Peace and blessings be upon him), who responded with universal worship and teaching to the manifestation of the dominicality of the universe’s Owner, and His eternal Godhead, and His infinite bounties, is as necessary for the universe as is the sun. For he is the supreme master of mankind and its greatest prophet, the Glory of the World, and the one addressed by “If not for you, if not for you, I would not have created the spheres.” The Muhammadan Reality was the reason for the world’s creation, and is its result and most perfect fruit. So too, truths connected with the universe such as its true perfections and its being the enduring mirrors of an eternal Beauteous One of Glory, and the manifestation of His Names, and the works —charged with duties— of His wise acts, and His most meaningful missives, and its bearing an everlasting world, and its producing the result of the hereafter and an abode of bliss for which all conscious creatures yearn, — these are all realized through the Muhammadan (PBUH) Reality and his messengership. Since this is so, the universe testifies most powerfully and decisively to his messengership.” (The Rays, Pg 591)